Foundations of industrial policy in the countries with different levels of development: lessons for Ukraine
Relevance of the research topic is due to the need of developed and developing states of the world in renaissance and improvement of industrial policy as a key instrument of economic development strategy in a globalizing world. Formulation of the problem. The efficiency of industrial policy in countries with different level of development depends on the fact how principles the policy is based on take into consideration the starting national conditions and requirements and trends of global market. For the countries with the same levels of income it is possible to determine the common directions of industrial development strategies and efficient tools of industrial policy. Under similar starting conditions differences in approaches to industrial policy may also determine the differences in results of its implementation; under different starting conditions they can entail the smoothing out of economic performance and a rapid convergence of economies.
Analysis of recent research and publications. Some issues on industrial policy implementation in the countries of the world were investigated by both domestic and foreign scholars: A. I. Amosha, A. Andreoni, K. Warwick, V. P. Vyshnevsky, V. M. Heyets, G. Cresti, J. Lin., V. I. Liashenko, A. Noman, I. Nubler, K. Ohno, H. alazar-Xirinachs, E. Starikov, J. Stiglitz, V. Treichel, K. Shwab. Selection of unexplored parts of the general problem. In spite of the multiple attempts to generalize the approaches and instruments of industrial policy for groups of countries the search of optimal design of industrial policy is still going on, what makes the adoption of important industrial development regulations complicated and is the reason of bitter discussions between the branches of authorities in the course of formation of Strategy of Ukrainian industrial complex development, legislative regulation of «industrial visa-free» and export duties on some types of feedstock. Setting the task, the purpose of the study. The purpose of the study is generalization of the experience of industrial policies in countries with different levels of economic development and justification of the need to use it in setting the basic principles of domestic industrial policies. Method or methodology for conducting research. In the research we used general and specific scientific methods of analysis, synthesis, induction and deduction, historical, comparison, dialectical method of knowledge; also methods of statistical analysis, monographic research for countries’ experience, expert assessment method for elaboration the recommendations on industrial policy implementation in transformation economies. Presentation of the main material (results of work). The industrial policy of three groups of countries – with high, middle and low income – are studied due to their historical development. Socioeconomic and institutional conditions of countries, where the implementation of a certain type of industrial policy had positive or negative results, were determined. The analysis of the Ukrainian industrial performance and industrial policy showed that the policy should be revised according to the relevance of instruments and measures to the challenges of internal and global environment. The priority directions of industrial development are determined and the key principles of industrial policy in Ukraine are justified based on foreign experience. The field of application of results. The results of this research can be applied in the process of industrial regulatory framework formation, in the Concept of state industrial policy and the Strategy of industrial development elaboration by central executive authorities, and in the preparation of relevant sections of programs of regions’ socioeconomic and cultural development. Conclusions according to the article. In the study it is determined that these are the protectionism measures and innovation activity stimulation which are the base of the modern industrial policies in the countries with a high level of development; the middle-income countries should prioritize innovation and technology policies; the low-income states including Ukraine should focus on industrial modernization, import substitution, and the integration into global value chains in order to accelerate their socioeconomic development and strengthen the competitiveness over the world markets.
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