Marine infrastructure of Ukraine in the rating of the world countries: current state and prospects
The article is devoted to the problem of determining the main directions of the formation of a competitive marine infrastructure of Ukraine, the relevance of which is confirmed in the Strategy for the Development of Sea Ports of Ukraine for the period up to 2038 Marine Doctrine of Ukraine for the period up to 2035. Many scientific works of foreign and domestic scientists are devoted to the problems of increasing the competitiveness of marine infrastructure. However, it is worth noting the lack of domestic work on the problems of the development of maritime and river transport in the current economic conditions, which are characterized by the growth of globalization and integration processes. Тhe purpose of the article is to assess the position of Ukraine in the ranking of countries of the world in terms of the development of maritime transport and the definition of strategic measures for the formation of a competitive national maritime infrastructure. The author provides an overview of the state and forecast of the development of shipping in the world. The advantages of transporting goods by sea are formulated, which determine its competitiveness. The positions of Ukraine in the ranking of countries of the world in the number of ships of the marine merchant fleet and the length of waterways are determined. The characteristic of the largest world alliances in the container shipping market by sea is given. The article emphasizes the problem of the uncertain prospects for the development of shipping, which is due to a combination of geopolitical and economic risks, which is associated with trade policy, structural changes in the global economy, changes in the global energy balance, and the spread of digital technologies. Ukraine has significant potential to develop cargo and passenger transportation by river and sea. Among the former CIS countries, it ranks third in the ratings after Russia and Belarus. However, in order to improve the rating and competitiveness of our country in the international market for the provision of water transport services, a number of measures need to be taken in terms of improving safety, introducing innovative technologies, improving tariff policy, and reforming governance.
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