Economic and ecological aspects of granite mining in Zhytomyr region: problems and prospects
Formulation of the problem. Most of Ukraine is located on the so-called Ukrainian Shield, which is a geological block rise of the crystalline basement of the Eastern European platform, stretching within our country along the middle reaches of the Dnieper in a strip over 1000 km long and about 250 km wide from the Gorin River to the Sea of Azov. This geological massif consists almost entirely of metamorphic and igneous rocks, the bulk of which are deeply processed by ultrametamorphic processes, including granitization and selective anathexis, which caused the formation of local crustal magmas. In many places granites come to the surface. From the geological point of view, granite is an intrusive rock of acidic composition with a granular (even-grained or uneven-grained) structure. The exceptional strength of this stone material allows it to be used in various areas of the economy, including construction. In this area, granite is widely used in the construction of roads, houses, concrete, bridges and more. Due to the widespread use of stone in the manufacturing sector, there is a need for its extraction. Quarry mining of granite is carried out in Zhytomyr, Kyiv, Kirovohrad, Zaporizhia and other regions. At the same time, the extraction of granite by quarrying, as well as its further processing into marketable products, including crushed stone, has a negative impact on the environment. On the one hand, there is the problem of producing the necessary construction products to meet the needs of industry and domestic life of the country's inhabitants, and on the other - there is the issue of environmental protection. Analysis of recent research and publications. This issue is directly or indirectly considered in studies that in one way or another relate to environmental problems of the Zhytomyr region in general, as well as the impact of the mining industry in particular are considered and studies N. G. Zinovchuk, G. Ya. Studinskaya, V. A. Studinsky, V. K. Danilka, V. I. Karpova and others. It is worth noting that the problem of the impact of granite mining in the quarry method is considered by many researchers in conjunction with the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. The purpose of this study is the identification of economic and environmental problems associated with the organization of granite mining in a quarry way, as well as the combination of this problem with other factors of negative impact on the environment. Materials and methods. The implementation of this study is based on the following principles: conceptuality, which allows to obtain integrated results; analytical, which allows for a comprehensive study of the issue and identify its individual components; debatability, which allows the admission of different views on this issue. Results of the research. The article attempts to consider the negative impact on the environment of granite mining and its processing into marketable products. The authors also tried to consider this problem comprehensively in combination with other negative environmental impacts. This touches on the improvement of technical and technological processes that reduce the negative impact on the environment. Conclusions. Quarrying of granite is undoubtedly a negative impact on the natural state, in particular on the quality of air, water and land resources. This negative impact is exacerbated by the fact that the Zhytomyr region was most negatively affected by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. However, the application of modern technologies in the system of quarry granite mining can significantly reduce the negative impact, in particular of crushed stone plants, on the environment of Zhytomyr region.
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